Fouling on heat transfer surfaces: mitigation and/or regeneration
Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness. ENE2017-87855-R
Start date: 01/01/2018 - End date: 31/12/2020
The quality of the air in Europe has not improved substantially in the last decade and levels of particulate matter and NOx continue to be found that exceed the limits set by legislation, particularly in industrial areas or in large cities in unfavorable weather conditions. It is clear that, as regards emissions control strategies, not enough progress has been made and, or the implementation of the legislation is carried out poorly, as has been shown in the recent scandals in the automotive or, there is a vacuum of legislation, as for example, the absence of particle emission limits in aviation.
That is why most of the objectives for the next decade are to initiate a transition towards a more responsible and efficient use of energy. Everything seems to indicate that by 2050 a radical transformation of the energy landscape will have been completed since, if the climatic, economic and health consequences are not made, they would be catastrophic. However, the last decade has served to demonstrate that despite the enormous efforts to find new technologies, breaking with fossil fuels, mainly the fusion and sequestration of carbon, none of them has a speed of advance that allows us to wait. In the case of carbon sequestration, a maximum of one TRL-7 (pilot plant) can be spoken, and in the case of the TRL-3 fusion (critical function, testing and establishment of the concept).
That is why the combustion of fossil fuels for transportation is expected to dominate in the next two decades, and biomass is the most reasonable alternative to replace fossil fuels, reduce CO2 emissions caused by heating in the residential sector. However, both still present technological challenges to solve. One of them is, without a doubt, the loss of performance caused by fouling of the heat transfer surfaces (fouling) derived from the deposition of the soot particles generated during combustion. The fouling causes a huge operating cost overrun. It is estimated that only in Europe is a loss of 700 million Euros per year [Sheikh 2000]. In the United States industry, a cost of five billion dollars is estimated during the last two decades of the 20th century [Watts 1984].
Today, the strategy of promoting the oxidation of carbonaceous compounds and the unburned hydrocarbons present in the exhaust gases and / or in the waste that forms the insulating layer is a research focus in the field of gas purification. escape. One of the most innovative and promising techniques for its high efficiency, safety, wide range of application and the absence of production of secondary pollutants is the technology of injection of plasma at low temperature (Non Thermal Plama Injection - NTPI).
In the present project it is foreseen that during the second half of the same it can be tested this technology in the existing experimental plants. This will require simultaneous work on several fronts.